MicroRNAs as regulators of beta-cell function and dysfunction

Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskriftTidsskriftartikelForskningfagfællebedømt

Mirwais Osmai, Yama Osmai, Claus Heiner Bang-Berthelsen, Emil Marek Heymans Pallesen, Anna Lindeløv Vestergaard, Guy Wayne Novotny, Flemming Pociot, Thomas Mandrup-Poulsen

In the last decade there has been an explosion in both the number of and knowledge about miRNAs associated with both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Even though we are presently in the initial stages of understanding how this novel class of posttranscriptional regulators are involved in diabetes, recent studies have demonstrated that miRNAs are important regulators of the islet transcriptome, controlling apoptosis, differentiation, proliferation, as well as regulating unique islet and beta-cell functions and pathways such as insulin expression, processing and secretion. Furthermore, a large number of miRNAs have been linked to diabetogenic processes induced by elevated levels of glucose, free fatty acids and inflammatory cytokines. Thus, miRNAs are novel therapeutic targets with the potential of protecting the beta-cell, and there is proof-of-principle that miRNA antagonists, so called antagomirs, are effective in vivo for other disorders. miRNAs are exported out of cells in exosomes, raising the intriguing possibility of cell-to-cell communication between distant tissues via miRNAs and that miRNAs can be used as biomarkers of beta-cell function, mass and survival. The purpose of this review is to provide a status on how miRNAs control beta-cell function and viability in health and disease.
OriginalsprogEngelsk
TidsskriftDiabetes - Metabolism: Research and Reviews (Print Edition)
Vol/bind32
Udgave nummer4
Sider (fra-til)334–349
Antal sider16
ISSN1520-7552
DOI
StatusUdgivet - maj 2016

ID: 143056487